in Bolivia, near Lake Titicaca, the ancient city of Tiwanaku was built almost 13,000 feet (4,000 meters) above sea level, making it one of the highest urban centers ever constructed.

Tiwanaku is another ancient civilization whose timeline came and went, leaving behind megalithic monuments that go without explanation as to their mathematical design and construction. Considered by some as the oldest city in the world, much of Tiwanaku’s creation defies the laws of physics and mathematics even by today’s standards. Previously, in the early 1900s, Bolivian engineer Arthur Posnansky, who spent years studying the ruins based on astronomical alignments, concluded that Tiwanaku was constructed as early as 15,000 BC possibly even older and this was not the original construction of the Tiwanaku.

In the 1930s, German astronomers from the University of Bonn; Rolf Muller, Hanns Lundendorff, Friederich Becker, and Arnold Kohlshutter came to conclusions similar to Posnansky’s estimate. However, as noted by Kolata subsequent archaeological research has found a lack of any physical evidence, including prehistoric tools and dated refuse deposits, for any occupation at the Tiwanaku site as old as argued by Posnansky and the German astronomers.

Many monuments bear close resemblance to those created by other ancient cultures all over the planet, truly an overlap if one were to place hologram over hologram, to define the journey of humanity in time. The ancient civilizations apparently were in contact with each other using ancient ships or with aerial vehicles. with many other sacred sites throughout the planet Tiwanaku remains an enigma allowing researchers to speculate on its origins and purpose then parallel that with other ancient civilizations left behind by unknown beings surviving in time with great stone markers which bear clues to humanity’s creation story. Gods, temples, idols, all clues in puzzle humanity is unraveling at this time of conscious awakening.

Tiwanaku was perhaps an ancient site where people came to worship their gods, or their creators, or giants who came here from the stars. Stone faces reveal the races of many and even alleged aliens from the sky carved at top of gateways.

Gateway of the Sun, Tiwanaku

One of the most important gods wasViracocha, the god of action, shaper of many worlds, and destroyer of many worlds. He created people, with two servants, on a great piece of rock. Then he drew sections on the rock and sent his servants to name the tribes in those areas. In Tiwanaku he created the people out of rock and brought life to them through the earth. The Tiwanaku believed that Viracocha created giants to move the massive stones that comprise much of their archaeology, but then grew unhappy with the giants and created a flood to destroy them. The god Viracocha is similar in appearance to a typical grey alien and welcomes everyone to his great city.

It is a monumental city in the Bolivian highlands 13,000 feet above sea level and one of 754 recognized World Heritage Sites, Tiwanaku is surrounded by mountain ranges, with Lake Titicaca on its west side. The massive, solid blocks of a stone not indigenous to the flat plateau give rise to the site’s nickname, “the Stonehenge of the Americas” — and, over the years, they have given rise to some otherworldly theories of how the site came to be.

In the last ten years, teams of archaeologists from the University of Pennsylvania Museum and elsewhere have made progress understanding this enigmatic site, and more is being uncovered every year. Archaeologists have concluded that the ancient city was occupied between 500-1000 A.D., then abandoned hundreds of years before the arrival of the Inca in the 15th century. Bolivian archaeologists suggest 6000 B.C. Due to the harsh climate that eroded all the adobe walls of this planned city, and the loss of surface stone harvested by local peoples over the years for later constructions, much of the earlier surface construction has been lost. The loss of surface data, and the large size of the site, estimated at about four square miles, has made it especially difficult for archaeologists to deepen their understanding of the spatial organization of this complex site.

Tiwanaku or Tiahuanaco is a mystery because of its age and its spectacular stone technology. Today there is little doubt that Tiwanaku was a major sacred ceremonial centre and focal point of a culture that spread across much of the region. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the oldest and most important precursors to the Inca Empire.

Tiwanaku is thought to have been a moral and cosmological center to which many people made pilgrimages. The ideas of cosmological prestige are the precursors to Tiwanaku powerful empire.The blocks, many of them weighing upwards of 200 tons, are in some cases held together by large metallic, I-shaped couplers.


Others were held together by silver rivets. The system used here is reminiscent of that used in the Egyptian ruins on Elephantine Island on the Nile. Most researchers believe that the metal was actually poured into I-shaped slots carved into the rock using melted metal.

Some of the docks and piers in this area are so large that hundreds of ocean going ships could dock comfortably; yet there is only Lake Titicaca. Nothing ‘oceanic’ is near these docks except a prehistoric coastline indicated by chalky deposits of ancient salt water fossils. Lake Titicaca, languishing miles away, is nearly 100 feet lower than the ruined docks. Many of the stones were hauled away and used in the construction of buildings and a railway.

A tremendous geological upheaval occurred thousands of years ago raising the entire region ten thousand feet above its former coastline and tumbling these huge stones. A violent tilt of the axis of the earth occurring some 12,000 years ago may have been responsible?

Tiwanaku location between the lake and dry highlands provide key resources of fish, wild birds, plants, and herding grounds for animals particularly llamas.

In the earliest farming known in America, the high altitude required the development of artificially raised planting mounds separated by shallow canals filled with water. The canals supply moisture for growing crops, but they also absorb heat from solar radiation during the day. This heat is gradually emitted during the bitterly cold nights that often produce frost, providing thermal insulation. Significantly, the experimental fields recreated by University of Chicago’s Alan Kolata suffered only a 10% decrease in production following a 1988 freeze that killed 70-90% of the rest of the region’s production.

Large buildings with 20 ton stones fit perfectly together as shown when a needle cannot even penetrate between the stones.

The leaders lived inside four walls that were surrounded by a moat. This moat, some believe, was to create the image of a sacred island. Inside the walls there were many images of human origin that only the elites were privileged to visit, despite the fact that images represent the beginning of all humans not only the elite.

The ancient people built a stone pyramid known as the Akapana that is cross-shaped pyramidal structure that is 257 m wide, 197 m broad at its maximum, and 16.5 m tall. At its center, there is what appears to have been a sunken court. The exact identity of the ancient builders is unknown

Looters excavation has damaged the pyramid. The largest stone block within the Akapana, which consists of andesite, is estimated to weigh 66 metric tons.

Most of the world’s most sacred sites and oldest have been found to be astronomical calendars based on the alignment of the stars. Akapana like other pyramids and astronomical sights at Tiwanaku indicate knowledge of the stars and are similar to ancient cultures all over the world.

According to anthropologists dark unsophisticated cavemen and hunters roamed the Earth at this time in history. Yet we can visit the ruins of once majestic cities and pyramids built with stones weighing thousands of tons that were moved hundreds of miles. As with many other sacred sites throughout the planet Tiwanaku remains an enigma indicating visitors from other planets or the very least ancient civilizations left behind by unknown beings and carvings of unknown or ancient animals…

The Kalasasaya was used as a ceremonial center and for astronomical observations, allowing users to observe and define certain astronomical activities on any date of the 365-day year. On the fall and spring equinoxes (21 March and 21 September, in the southern hemisphere) the light of Sun shined through the main entrance gate. This indicates that the Tiwanaku civilization understood earth/sun cycles (calendar) and astronomy well enough to incorporate them into their construction projects and activities The precision with which these angles have been utilized to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of descriptive geometry.

Elongated Skulls of the Ancients

Popular Lost Cities author David Hatcher Childress tackles the enigma of worldwide cranial deformation along with Canadian-Peruvian anthropologist Foerster. In a book filled with over a hundred astonishing photos and a color photo section, Childress and Foerster take us to Bolivia, Peru, Egypt, Malta, China, Mexico and other places in search of strange elongated skulls and other cranial deformation. The puzzle of why diverse ancient people-even on remote Pacific Islands-would use head-binding to create elongated heads is mystifying. Where did they even get this idea? Did some people naturally look this way-with long narrow heads?

Were they some sort of elite race that roamed the entire planet? Why do anthropologists rarely talk about cranial deformation and know so little about it? As incredible as it seems, Childress and Foerster discover that cranial deformation was practiced on nearly every continent by special groups who believed they were imitating their highly advanced ancestors. This is a mind-blowing trip into the strange past of humans on planet earth.

David Hatcher Childress looks into all of the elongated skulls of the world and offers the latest ideas on what could of caused them. Some look natural or manmade, but others featured definitely look out of this world. The areas of explanation are:

1. Natural deformation: Many of the ruling class often married close relatives and had children where they could pass on the bad genes. The Egyptian pharaohs are an example of this and their families.

2. Practice of binding: Pictures are shown and a chapter devoted to peoples who still do this practice. It seems to of been customary all over the world. The question becomes why.

3. A completely different human species: Some of the skulls presented do look much different than normal human skulls and are much larger. This indicates they could have been a different species of humans’ altogether.

4. Extraterrestrial in origin: Some artifacts depicting many unusual looking beings with elongated heads along with stories of the rulers being descended from sky gods makes this idea interesting.