GeorgePaschalidis1George Paschalidis is a Greek researcher and best selling author who has made a novel discovery: that all humans are categorized into three distinct types, “The Three Human Type Model” that reflects both psychological and physiological traits. He is the author of five books, which have become best sellers in Greece. The first two books have been published in English and are currently being translated in German and French.

He has been awarded with the 9th International “Giuseppe Sciacca” Award in 2010 (Vatican City Pontificia Universita Urbaniana) and the “Greek Unesco Club Of Art, Discourse And Science Award” in 2012. In June 2012, the “Three Human Type Model” was presented at the 18th Annual International Conference on Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry in New Orleans. In October 2012, George Paschalidis will present his discovery in the 20th World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics in Hamburg.

Out of thousands of research candidates, he was the only one to discover that all humans are classified into three human types (A, B and C) with distinct personality and biological traits.

The personality traits that characterize The Three Human Types are:

Type A

  • Man of action
  • Spontaneous
  • Self confident
  • Overcomes obstacles quickly
  • Panic reaction to stress
  • Impatient

Type B

  • Patient
  • Romantic
  • Has intense maternal feelings
  • Has self-control
  • Anxious about future
  • Hesitant
  • Emotional
  • Prone to excuses
  • Reluctant in decision-making

Type C

  • Ambitious
  • Persistent
  • Passionate
  • Organized
  • Feels pain for past events
  • Afraid of rejection
  • Radical

The Three Human Types are classified according to:

  • Personality traits
  • Brain structure & function
  • Enterotype
  • Skeletal structure
  • Biometal & vitamin assimilation
  • Predisposition & manifestation of type-specific disorders

The Three Human Types derive predominantly from differentiations in the brain structure of the limbic system and its surrounding or associated systems:

  • The endo-rhinal cortex and multisensory association cortex
  • The amygdala-cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex
  • The hippocampus and the limbic association cortex

Each human type inherits these differentiations from one of the parents and this genetic transfer determines the dominant gene. The dominant gene illustrates the origin of the genetic make up from the father or the mother. Thus the phylogenic-diversified brains (male or female) have different physiological characteristics and behavior tendencies. The dominant gene of each human type shows if an individual’s Type was inherited from his/her father or mother and it does not depend on the gender of the offspring. This explains why women demonstrate male behavior and men maternal comportment.

Mr Paschalidis also introduced the Scale of Total Hormonal Disorder (Global Assessment of Stress Response), which is the degree of stress level in an individual. The scale of The Total Hormonal Disorder represents:

  • The level of emotional and physical disorder
  • The biochemical and patho-physiological alterations in the three formations of the limbic system through the synaptic plasticity of the brain
  • The alarm signals in the nerve cells of the intestine in stressful situations
  • The degree of the total function (physical and emotional) of the body
  • The plasticity of the brain (i.e. its capacity to change at a neural level), which explains the improvement in the way of thinking, following the reduction of the level of The Total Hormonal Disorder Index. Thus type-specific regions of the brain start to function efficiently again.

Each human type has different nutritional needs that are genetically determined by the differentiation in the way each type assimilates specific biometals and vitamins. Each type has distinct needs for specific bio-metals and these are manganese, magnesium and copper for type A, type B and type C respectively. These metals play an important role in synaptic plasticity.

Human Type A lacks a key element and this deficiency obstructs the assimilation of manganese in the body. As a result the brain is confused and provides wrong directions for the administration of iron in the body. This is why type A develops dryness of the skin and the internal organs, resulting in liver cirrhosis and pulmonary infections.

In a similar way, type B lacks a key element. Such lack is impairing the assimilation of magnesium in the body. As a result, brain is confused and provides wrong directions for the administration of vitamins D and B12 as well as the Omega 3 fatty acids, which are linked to the increase of blood viciousness resulting in thrombophilia. Vitamin D, which is accumulated in the colon, causes swelling & loss of colon’s elasticity and develops varicosity & spastic colitis.

Type C lacks a key element. Such lack is impairing the assimilation of copper in the body. As a result, the brain becomes confused and it provides wrong directions for the administration of Vitamin C, which is accumulated in the blood vessels. This is why type C develops calcification of the blood vessels and the left ventricle.

George Paschalidis has been researching and discussing the connection between the brain and the gut since 2002. Both systems activate common neurological, hormonal and immunological functions and he referred to the intestine and the bacterial flora as “the second brain”. Bacteria communities in the human gastrointestinal system can now be classified into only three distinct groups, the enterotypes:

  • Bacteroides for type A people
  • Prevotella for type B people
  • Ruminococcus for type C people

The two brains are almost identical: they consist of the same cells, the same principles of operation and the same receptors. They continuously influence each other. It is important that both of these brains function optimally. The intestinal type, the brain-intestine connection and the increase of the Total Hormonal Disruption affect the assimilation of biometals that are essential for the function of the synapses. The understanding of the neuronal synapses functioning and the determination of the Total Hormonal Disruption Index can contribute to disease prevention.

Recent scientific research findings indicate that there is a correlation between biometal assimilation and enterotype of each human type. Alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters and biometals after stress lead to the manifestation of physical and mental disorders. This corresponds to an increase in the Total Hormone Disorder index.

In Paschalidis model, each of The Three Human Types has a propensity for specific disorders and diseases that are determined by the functionality of the type-specific brain areas, the corresponding enterotype and the different assimilation of metals and elements.

For example, type A people suffer from the following disorders: Alzheimer’s disease, temporal epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (primary progressive type which has rapid aggravation causing the patient’s paraplegia), temporal hemorrhagic stroke (which can be either fatal or non-reversible), schizophrenia with hallucinations, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and pneumonia. Type A people also suffer from osteoarthritis caused by inflammation of the joints, which causes necrosis in some parts of the joints. Operations on patients are usually made on small parts of the joint, where it is necrotized. Scientific research documents that the pathogenesis of all these diseases is a form of damage at the temporal cortex and a disorder at the metabolism of manganese and iron, which are the bio-markers of human type A.

Type B individuals suffer from Parkinson’s disease, stuttering, dysarthria, Korsakoff’s dementia due to alcoholism, spastic bronchitis, ischemic stroke, thrombosis, anxiety disorders, depression, causalgia and dystonia & diabetes type II of dietary cause. Other disorders occurring to type B individuals are rheumatoid lupus erythematosus, temporarily lapses, multiple sclerosis with leg tremor and instability (relapsing-remitting type), vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, paramorphotic rheumatic arthritis in all members of the body, polymyalgia rheumatic & ankylosing spondylitis. These are all disorders proven to be related to structural and functional disorders of the amygdala and disorders of the metabolism of manganese. Type B people develop crystals in their knees because their pelvis tilts backwards and forces their knees to turn inwards, causing a swinging motion when they are walking. The formation of crystals in the knees combined with swinging causes great damage at the knees, which are operated on by performing arthroplastic surgery.

Type C people suffer from disorders such ascouperose, mania, manic depression, diabetes type I, pancreatitis, thyroiditis Hashimoto, vascular dementia, chronic allergic asthma, multiple sclerosis (secondary progressing type which is reversible and manifested by spasticity and non-motor control in the legs and balance weakness) & multiple regional hemorrhagic strokes (with reversible symptoms, unlike type-A that these symptoms are not reversible). Scientific data documents that structural and functional disorders of the hippocampus and disorders of the metabolism of copper are the pathogenetic mechanisms of the diseases above. Other disorders of this human type are paramorphotic osteoarthritis & systematic lupus erythematosus with rapid evolving organ damage and osteopenia, which, when it occurs in the vessels of the ear, Meniere syndrome occurs. The lymph and arterial calcification that occurs in type C individuals, results in lack of elasticity in fast motion, resulting in fluid retention in the joints that causes deforming osteoarthritis, and then surgery is necessary for the scraping of the joints.

Type A Type B Type C
Cutaneous LupusErythematosus Rheumatoid LupusErythematosus Systemic LupusErythematosus
Alzheimer Disease Korsacoff’s Disease –Temporary lapses Vascular Dementia
Schizophrenia, hallucinations Depression Bipolar Disorder
Pneumonia Bronchitis spastic Allergic bronchitis/asthma
Multiple Sclerosis (Progressive Type) Atypical Multiple Sclerosis (Relapsing-Remitting Type) Multiple Sclerosis(Secondary Progressive Type)
Diabetes Type II (neurological cause) Diabetes Type II (dietary cause) Diabetes Type I
Temporal HemorrhagicStroke (fatal or nonreversible) Ischemic Stroke Multiple Regional HemorrhagicStrokes (reversible)
Inflammation of the joints –osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis AnkylosingSpondylitis OsteoarthitisParamorphotic

Table 1: Correlation of Human Types with Diseases (G. Paschalidis, A. Stathopoulou 24.06.2012, 18th International Conference on Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry)

The new knowledge of The Three Human Types clearly explains the function of the human brain. The discovery of individual differences in the cerebral function is a key for health and wellness.

  • Brain function integrates the information coming from external stimuli to a cellular level in order for homeostasis to function optimally.
  • Repetitive thoughts, which mobilize “danger-signalling” mechanisms that are experienced as stress, trigger a combined modification of the synapses in specific regions of the limbic system of the brain and they obstruct the transmission of trace elements that carry the information and affect the assimilation of the corresponding liquid metals and vitamins in the body.
  • The transmission of information through the brain, which is mediated by the activity of neuro-transmitting systems and neuronal synapses, is obstructed by the persistent thoughts and causes the production of neuromodulators from the peripheral organs as liver, suprarenal glands, gonads and pancreas that lead to dysfunction and disease.

The harmonious and calm thought of happiness frees the brain and heals the body. Stressful thoughts of unhappy people jam the brain and sicken the body.

In 2002, George Paschalidis started his research by interviewing and observing ill and healthy individuals from different regions and nationalities. More than 20,000 people were empirically studied, from which more than 15,000 were patients. Also the first-degree relatives of those were studied bringing the sample number to 140,000 individuals.

He noted that people with the same diseases have common personality traits, reactions and adaptations to stress and that there were only three different human behaviours. Through empirical assessment initially, and by applying scientific statistical methodology from the base upwards, patterns appeared and features were grouped into only three human types. Consequently, he grouped the diseases that appeared in individuals with the same human personality type.

Paschalidis developed a system of tools and methods of analysis, recognition and appreciation of the characteristics of each human type and detection of biological and psychological markers for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The Paschalidis System of Empirically based Analysis, Identification and Assessment of the Three Human Personality Types and their biological and psychological Markers include the development of the following tools and methods:

  1. The Three Human Type Model Questionnaire (THUPETMQ)
  2. Global Assessment of Stress Response Inventory (GASRI)
  3. Stress Influence Scale (SIS)
  4. Disease Tables depending on the Human Personality Type
  5. Alphabetical List of Diseases and Personality Human Type
  6. Correlation Table of Stress Degree with Symptoms and Diseases
  7. The Form of Laboratory and Imaging studies (filled in per semester): Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Blood Tests, Electrocardiogram, Metal Testing
  8. Therapeutic Results of the Three Human Personality Type Model Rating Scale
  9. Nutritional Habits Questionnaire

George Paschalidis collaborates with medical research groups in order to verify The Three Human Types and to clarify the neurobiological, genetic and patho-physiological factors that determine the function of each type. Studies of more than 3,000 articles, review and synthesis of international literature on neuro-anatomy, neurobiology, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neuro-genetic, neuro-immunology, neuro-gastroenterology, pathophysiology and psychiatry were the basis of the translational research that led to the confirmation of the model of The Three Human Types. Research and translation of the data from the literature review have been supplemented with prospective studies of clinical and healthy groups, with case studies of specific disorders or symptoms and studies of groups with the same diseases.

Prospective studies highlighted the results:

  • Human Personality Type traits of each participant match personality traits of one of their parents. In a percentage of 99.9995%, when the birth order is first, third and fifth, the offspring demonstrates the same characteristic type traits with its father and when the adolescent is second and forth in birth order the child has the same characteristic type traits with its mother. The opposite happens rarely, in a percentage of 0.0005% of the cases (1 in 2,000).
  • Twin studies showed that only in 0.001% (1 in 1,000) the twins are identical and have the same personality type, the same proneness to movements, the same behaviour tendencies and the same appearance.
  • The results indicated that the predominant predictor of specific subtypes of mental disorders in offspring, were the traits of each human type that determine a history of the corresponding disorders in the parent of the same type
  • MRI results showed that there is a positive association of the volume of the entorhinal cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus with the three different types, type A, B and C respectively (p<0.01)
  • Studies examine specific parent to child transmission of distinct personality traits of The Three Human Types associated with heightened risk for subtypes of disorders.
  • Prospective studies highlighted the positive association of the specific type personality traits of The Three Human Personality Type model with different subtypes of disorders

The Three Human Personality Type Model, as a neurobiological and cognitive model, helps us realize that when each person is approached according to his/her personality Type, enterotype and corresponding nutritional type, restoration of the balance of the synaptic plasticity of the brain and uncovering of the biological mechanisms by which personality and health are interconnected can be achieved.
The Three Human Personality Type Model gives us new insights on personality, heredity and health parameters and reveals markers for unique traits that are involved in diagnosis and personalized treatment. Such markers are the size of some brain parts, the heart rate, the enterotype and the personality characteristics of each type, which are all indicators of behaviour, emotion and thought as a reaction to stress.

Cooperation with research centres helps detection of these markers.

This model elucidates the way in which genetically determined neurobiological phenotypes of the three human types are associated with the subtype, the severity and the course of the disorders, resulting in developing personalized therapy regimens that are derived from the neurobiological research.

George Paschalidis has provided a unique opportunity to explore the interaction of the genes, the brain, and the behaviour within a translational research framework.

In addition to improving the genetic and neurobiological pathways of our understanding of the Three Human Personality Type Model that determine the individual differences in complex behavioural traits at the level of brain circuit function, the model will lead to the discovery of novel cell sources and other novel therapeutic methods, targeting always at the Human Type of every individual.

Recent research investigating the neuronal diversity in some regions of the limbic system – such as the amygdala, the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex – has demonstrated that the cells are unique to these specific areas and they are genetically differentiated.

  • The neuronal progenitors derived from the specific region of the limbic system for each type and the gastrointestinal progenitor cells from the gut microbiota, which are differentiated by the enterotype, can function as the two unique healthy cell sources which will be used to regenerate cells in damaged organs through transplants. Scientists will take cells from a specific part of the brain and grow healthy cells to the point-transplant organ that is damaged. The gut, as a second brain, is the second source of healthy cells.
  • The need to find a totally compatible donor for transplant is of particular interest. Compatibility has been identified from only one of the parents. The type of each patient gives the solution.
  • The development of pharmacological challenge protocols has begun, since Mr. Paschalidis conducts research about the neuronal diversity of regions of limbic system, such as amygdala, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Biometals that exist in every human type’s organism are being transmitted in a wrong way, they never reach the parts of the body and as a consequence these parts sicken. Based on the knowledge that biometal concentrations in tissue cells of the brain structures help the function of those structures, we will be able to develop personalized therapy regimens derived from neurobiological research.

Each human type’s disorders will be preventable and treatable when type- specific formulations will be integrated into their treatments. By using these type-specific metal-based drugs, we can strengthen the immune system of the body and maintain cell homeostasis. As a result, diseases can be improved and even be cured. Each drug will be specifically formulated for each patient, according to his/her human type. Paschalidis is in the procedure to grand a patent.

According to Mr. Paschalidis, when a combination of specific metals and vitamins is given to a human, depending on his human personality type and therefore to his brain function and nutritional type, the improvement of his behaviour, of the way he faces the events of everyday life and of his health will be achieved. When the specific compound of metals and vitamins, including Manganese, is given to humans with personality type A, not only it leads to an improvement of the extremity of their type (which is the panic reaction to stress), but it also gives place to the good side of type-A’s behaviour which is the calm action. By using suitable drugs, which Mr. Paschalidis has already studied and will soon be produced in appropriate laboratories, the state of type-A’s diseases will be improved and even cured. We will be able to restore stability in patient’s psychological balance, to avoid the external and internal panic and to avoid, improve or even cure diseases such as pneumonia, tachycardia, external hemorrhoids, joint inflammations, Cutaneous lupus erythematosus, paraplegia and Alzheimer’s disease. By using suitable medicines we will be able to prevent and cure types of cancer such as: brain tumours of the temporal lobe, tumours in both lungs, cold and hot nodules in the thyroid gland, leukaemia cells and reversal of white blood cells type, precancerous cervical lesions, cancer of right breast, stomach cancer and oral cancer.

When type B individuals are given a specific combination of compounds, which includes Magnesium, the extremity of their personality (the anxiety as a reaction to stress and the excess thoughts) is improved. As a result, type B humans are improved by acting rather than thinking. Using suitable drugs which Mr Paschalidis has already studied, the state of B type’s diseases will be improved and even cured. The diseases of type B are depression, temporary lapses, Parkinson disease, dystonia, paresis or hemiparesis of motor neuron, cystic mastitis, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism or goiter, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, melanoma, gynecomastia, gynecological cancer and all other brain tumors apart from the cancer of temporal lobe and gloioblastoma (that presents in A and C type respectively), cancer in one lung only, intestinal cancer ten cm before the end, liver cancer, cancer in spleen, kidney, and testicles, ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatic arthritis, vasculitis, uterine cancer (inside the uterus), extraordinary contractions, and cystic formations.

When type C people take the specific combination of metals and vitamins that includes Copper, the extremity of their personality (which is to be overly passionate) is improved and their passion gives place to love. Using suitable type-specific drugs type-C’s diseases will be improved and cured. Diseases of human type C are dementia, bipolar disorder, allergic asthma, small regional strokes, deforming osteo-athritis, osteopenia, Crohns disease, cancer of the pancreas, glioblastoma multiforme, left breast cancer, multiple liver tumours, cancer in a large part of the intestine (half a meter from the end upwards), sarcoma, osteosarcoma, diabetes type I, gangrene dialysis, arrhythmias, polycystic kidneys and autoimmune diseases, uterine sarcoma, polycystic kidney disease, hemodialysis, gangrene of vascular and diabetic cause and bronchus cancer.

George Paschalidis’ New Knowledge of the Three Human Types opens new horizons and constitutes the greatest discovery in the field of science, since it represents the model of a hitherto Unique, Multi-dimensional Health Program. Each person is approached according to its personality type, its enterotype and the corresponding nutritional type. This model assists in achieving self-awareness, developing an understanding of others and providing individualized treatment in the case of illnesses.

The Three Human Personality Type Model contributes to

  • The identification of the corresponding brain regions that are engaged during cognitive-affective tasks of the three types, and determine individual differences in emotion, motivation, cognition and behaviour.
  • The detection of the genetic and biological factors that contribute to human individual differences
  • The explanation of the impact of the stress on brain activity and body function
  • The discovery of mechanisms, biomarkers and novel treatment approaches of nervous and other body systems disorders.
  • The translational and multidisciplinary approach to research and therapeutic interventions
  • The distinction or identification of individuality in the function of human body apart from blood groups, finger prints, iris analysis and DNA bar codes and enterotypes, that were discovered recently (2011)

Never before in human history or culture has this information been recorded. This is a unique phenomenon destined to affect modern Medicine in a catalytic and regenerative way.

George Paschalidis’s translational research, the Three Human Personality Type Model and the prospects it opens, are a unique key and a challenge for scientists and researchers who will collaborate with the researcher George Paschalidis in order to forward scientific research and strengthen the effectiveness of treatment, detection and prevention methods.

Personality traits Human type Disease tendency Biomarkers:
1. Brain structure
2. Enterotype
3. Biometals
Man of action
Type A Alzheimer
Inflammation of the joints
Temporal lobe
Thought/Anxious about the future
Type B Temporary lapses
Rheumatoid arthritis
Vitamin D
Feels pain for past events
Type C Senility
Bipolar depression
Vitamin C

Table 2: Correlations between Personality Traits, Human Types, Diseases and Biomarkers (G. Paschalidis, A. Stathopoulou 24.06.2012
18th International Conference on Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry)

Animal models possess a complex behavioural repertoire and they are identified to have three types of stress coping mechanisms.

  • The A type represents the male behaviour phenotype and reacts instantly, attacks and guards
  • B types are characterized by maternal, female behaviour and control, protect their children and attack only at risk.
  • Models with C type exhibit mixed male/ female behaviours, sometimes controlling and attacking and sometimes killing offspring and not protecting their species.
  • Differences between human and animal models are determined by the ability to think that only exists in the human species.
  • Genetic differences in anxiety between animal model strains are associated with differences in humans in their susceptibility to stressors. (Egan R, 2010)

Table 3: Types and Behaviour in Animal Laboratory Research Models (G. Paschalidis, A. Stathopoulou 24.06.2012
18th International Conference on Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry)